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10 Best Places to Visit in Micronesia

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Micronesia Tourist Attractions: 13 Top Places to Visit

Planning to visit Micronesia? Check out our Micronesia Travel Guide video and see top most Tourist Attractions in Micronesia.

Top Places to visit in Micronesia:
Truk Lagoon, Nan Madol, Kepirohi Waterfall, Stone Money of Yap, Sokehs Rock, Lelu Island, Ant Atoll, Liduduhniap Falls, Japanese Zeros, The Blue Hole, Kolonia Town, Chuuk, Kosrae

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TOP 10 Places to Visit in Palau

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10. Ngkeklau
Ngkeklau is a populated area in the southern region of the state of Ngaraard in the Republic of Palau. The town has a small population, on the east coastal plains of Ngaraard.

09. Kloulklubed
Kloulklubed is the main settlement on the Palau island of Peleliu. it is situated at the northern end of the island, close to North beach.

08. Airai
Weather: 27°C, Wind E at 0 km/h, 82% HumidityHotels: 3-star averaging.

07. Melekeok
Melekeok is a town in the State of Melekeok. It is located on the east coast of Palau's largest island, Babeldaob.

06. Angaur
Angaur or Ngeaur is an island in the island nation of Palau. The island, which forms its own state, has an area of 8 km². Its population was 130 in 2012. The state capital is the village of Ngeremasch on the western side.

05. Eil Malk
Eil Malk or Mecherchar is the main island of the Mecherchar Islands, an island group of Palau in the Pacific Ocean. In a more narrow sense, just the southeastern peninsula of Mecherchar is called Eil Malk.

04. Ngerulmud
Ngerulmud is the seat of government of the Republic of Palau, an island nation in the Pacific Ocean. It replaced Koror City, Palau's largest city, as capital in 2006.

03. Babeldaob
Babeldaob is the largest island in the island nation of the Republic of Palau. It is in the western Caroline Islands, and the second largest island in the Micronesia region of Oceania.

02. Rock Islands
The Rock Islands of Palau, also called Chelbacheb, are a small collection of limestone or coral uprises, ancient relics of coral reefs that violently surfaced to form Islands in Palau's Southern Lagoon, .

01. Koror
Koror is the state comprising the main commercial centre of the Republic of Palau. It consists of several islands, the most prominent being Koror Island. The state of Koror contains about 70% of the population of the country.

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Top 10 Largest Cities or Towns of Federated States of Micronesia

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1) Chuuk
2) Kosrae
3) Pohnpei
4) Yap
5) Colonia
6) Lelu
7) Palikir
8) Weno
9) Kitti
10) Nett

The Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) is an independent sovereign island nation consisting of four states -- from west to east, Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosrae -- that are spread across the Western Pacific Ocean. Together, the states comprise around 607 islands (a combined land area of approximately 702 km2 or 271 sq mi) that cover a longitudinal distance of almost 2,700 km (1,678 mi) just north of the equator. They lie northeast of New Guinea, south of Guam and the Marianas, west of Nauru and the Marshall Islands, east of Palau and the Philippines, about 2,900 km (1,802 mi) north of eastern Australia and some 4,000 km (2,485 mi) southwest of the main islands of Hawaii.

While the FSM's total land area is quite small, it occupies more than 2,600,000 km2 (1,000,000 sq mi) of the Pacific Ocean. The capital is Palikir, located on Pohnpei Island, while the largest city is Weno, located in the Chuuk Atoll.

Each of its four states is centered around one or more main high islands, and all but Kosrae include numerous outlying atolls. The Federated States of Micronesia is spread across part of the Caroline Islands in the wider region of Micronesia, which consists of thousands of small islands divided between several countries. The term Micronesia may refer to the Federated States or to the region as a whole.

The FSM was formerly a part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI), a United Nations Trust Territory under U.S. administration, but it formed its own constitutional government on May 10, 1979, becoming a sovereign state after independence was attained on November 3, 1986 under a Compact of Free Association with the United States. Other neighboring island entities, and also former members of the TTPI, formulated their own constitutional governments and became the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and the Republic of Palau (ROP). The FSM has a seat in the United Nations.

The ancestors of the Micronesians settled over four thousand years ago. A decentralized chieftain-based system eventually evolved into a more centralized economic and religious empire centered on Yap.

Nan Madol, consisting of a series of small artificial islands linked by a network of canals, is often called the Venice of the Pacific. It is located on the eastern periphery of the island of Pohnpei and used to be the ceremonial and political seat of the Saudeleur dynasty that united Pohnpei's estimated 25,000 people from about AD 500 until 1500, when the centralized system collapsed.

European explorers—first the Portuguese in search of the Spice Islands (Indonesia) and then the Spanish—reached the Carolines in the sixteenth century. The Spanish incorporated the archipelago to the Spanish East Indies and in the 19th century established a number of outposts and missions. In 1887 they founded the town of Santiago de la Ascension in what today is Kolonia on the island of Pohnpei.[4] Following the Spanish-American War the Spanish sold the archipelago to Germany in 1899. It was awarded to the Empire of Japan following World War I as a League of Nations Mandate.

During World War II, a significant portion of the Japanese fleet was based in Truk Lagoon. In February 1944, Operation Hailstone, one of the most important naval battles of the war, took place at Truk, in which many Japanese support vessels and aircraft were destroyed.

Following World War II, it was administered by the United States under United Nations auspices in 1947 as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

On May 10, 1979, four of the Trust Territory districts ratified a new constitution to become the Federated States of Micronesia. Palau, the Marshall Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands chose not to participate. The FSM signed a Compact of Free Association with the United States, which entered into force on November 3, 1986, marking Micronesia's emergence from trusteeship to independence. The Compact was renewed in 2004.

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Solomon Islands Tourist Attractions: 10 Top Places to Visit

Planning to visit Solomon Islands? Check out our Solomon Islands Travel Guide video and see top most Tourist Attractions in Solomon Islands.

Top Places to visit in Solomon Islands:
Bonegi I and II, Marovo Lagoon, Honiara Central Market, Russell Islands, Shark Point, Tenaru Falls, Honiara Botanical Gardens, Skull Island, Ghizo Island, Lake Tegano

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Palau Tourist Attractions: 15 Top Places to Visit

Planning to visit Palau? Check out our Palau Travel Guide video and see top most Tourist Attractions in Palau.

Top Places to visit in Palau:
Rock Islands, Jellyfish Lake, Belau National Museum, Ngardmau Waterfall, The Milky Way Lagoon, Long Beach, Kayangel Island, Peleliu Island, Stone Monoliths, Dolphins Pacific, Etpison Museum, WCTC Shopping Center, Honeymoon Island, Palau Capitol Complex, Melekeok, Mandarin Fish Lake

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Palau, Micronesia - The last Paradise Island

The best island of the world. Palau, Micronesia, Oceania.
L'isola tropicale più bella al mondo. Paradisiaca

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Island of YAP (MICRONESIA): the beautiful VILLAGE VIEW BEACH (PACIFIC OCEAN)

SUBSCRIBE!! - Let's go for a walk around my favorite beach, Village View Beach, located in the northern part of the island of YAP in the Federated States of Micronesia. Vic Stefanu, vstefanu@yahoo.com.

Yap or Wa′ab classically refers to an island located in the Caroline Islands of the western Pacific Ocean, and a part of the Federated States of Micronesia.

Togo Tourist Attractions: 10 Top Places to Visit

Planning to visit Togo? Check out our Togo Travel Guide video and see top most Tourist Attractions in Togo.

Top Places to visit in Togo:
Koutammakou, Cascade de Kpime, Marche aux fetiches, Mount Agou, Monument de l'independence, Grand Marche, National Museum, Tamberma Villages, Slave House of Togo, Village Artisanal

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Pohnpei - Best place to travel II

Pohnpei is a small Island in the western Pacific, the biggest Island of Micronesia. As I traveled through the Island, I met nice locals and had the time of my life.
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For 9 Month I volunteered in Pohnpei. At my Freetime I had the opportunity to get to know the culture and make some amazing friendships. I learned much about fishing, ate exotic food and tried to understand the culture. I'm thankfull to my Family and friends at home, that supported me. Also I can't thank my micronesians friends enough, for beeing absolutly hospitable.

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Top 10 Largest Cities or Towns of Guam

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1) Dededo
2) Yigo Village
3) Tamuning
4) Mangilao
5) Barrigada
6) Santa Rita
7) Mongmong-Toto-Maite
8) Chalan Pago-Ordot
9) Yona
10) Agat

Guam is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States in the western Pacific Ocean. It is one of five U.S. territories with an established civilian government. Guam is listed as one of seventeen Non-Self-Governing Territories by the Special Committee on Decolonization of the United Nations. The island's capital is Hagåtña (formerly named Agana). Guam is the largest and southernmost of the Mariana Islands.

The Chamorros, Guam's indigenous people, first inhabited the island approximately 4,000 years ago. The island has a long history of European colonialism, beginning with Ferdinand Magellan's Spanish expedition landing on March 6, 1521. The first colony was established in 1668 by Spain with the arrival of settlers including Padre San Vitores, a Catholic missionary. For more than two centuries Guam was an important stopover for the Spanish Manila Galleons that crossed the Pacific annually. The island was controlled by Spain until 1898, when it was surrendered to the United States during the Spanish--American War and later formally ceded as part of the Treaty of Paris.

Guam is the largest island in Micronesia and was the only U.S.-held island in the region before World War II. Guam was captured by the Japanese on December 8, 1941, just hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, and was occupied for two and a half years. During the occupation, the people of Guam were subjected to acts that included forced labor, torture, beheadings, and rape, and were forced to adopt the Japanese culture. Guam was subject to fierce fighting when U.S. troops recaptured the island on July 21, 1944, a date commemorated every year as Liberation Day.

Today, Guam's economy is supported by its principal industry, tourism, which is composed primarily of visitors from Japan. Guam's second largest source of income is the United States Armed Forces.

The original inhabitants of Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands are believed to be descendents of Austronesian people originating from Southeast Asia as early as 2000 BC. These people evolved into the Chamorro people. Most of what is known about pre-contact (ancient) Chamorros comes from legends and myths, archaeological evidence, Jesuit missionary accounts, and observations from visiting scientists like Otto von Kotzebue and Louis de Freycinet.

When Europeans first arrived on Guam, Chamorro society had three classes: matua (upper class), achaot (middle class), and mana'chang (lower class). The matua were located in the coastal villages, which meant they had the best access to fishing grounds, whereas the mana'chang were located in the interior of the island. Matua and mana'chang rarely communicated with each other, and matua often used achaot as an intermediary. There were also makåhna (similar to shamans), skilled in healing and medicine. Belief in spirits of ancient Chamorros called Taotao mo'na still persists as a remnant of pre-European culture. When Magellan arrived on Guam, he was greeted by hundreds of small outrigger canoes that appeared to be flying over the water, due to their considerable speed. These outrigger canoes were called Proas, and resulted in Magellan naming Guam Islas de las Velas Latinas (Islands of the Lateen sails).

Pigafetta described the lateen sail used by the inhabitants of Guam, hence the name Island of Sails, but he also writes the inhabitants entered the ships and stole whatever they could lay their hands on, including the small boat that was fastened to the poop of the flagship.:129 Those people are poor, but ingenious and very thievish, on account of which we called those three islands the islands of Ladroni.

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Top 10 Largest Cities or Towns of Fiji

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1) Suva
2) Lautoka
3) Nadi
4) Labasa
5) Ba
6) Levuka
7) Sigatoka
8) Rakiraki
9) Savusavu
10) Tavarua

Fiji, officially the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia in the South Pacific Ocean about 1,100 nautical miles (2,000 km; 1,300 mi) northeast of New Zealand's North Island. Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, New Caledonia to the southwest, New Zealand's Kermadec Islands to the southeast, Tonga to the east, the Samoas and France's Wallis and Futuna to the northeast, and Tuvalu to the north.

The country comprises an archipelago of more than 332 islands, of which 110 are permanently inhabited, and more than 500 islets, amounting to a total land area of about 18,300 square kilometres (7,100 sq mi). The farthest island is Onu-i-Lau. The two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the population of almost 860,000. The capital and largest city, Suva, is on Viti Levu. About three-quarters of Fijians live on Viti Levu's coasts, either in Suva or in smaller urban centres like Nadi (tourism) or Lautoka (sugar cane industry). Viti Levu's interior is sparsely inhabited due to its terrain.

The majority of Fiji's islands were formed through volcanic activity starting around 150 million years ago. Today, some geothermal activity still occurs on the islands of Vanua Levu and Taveuni. Fiji has been inhabited since the second millennium BC. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Dutch and the British explored Fiji, which was a Crown Colony until 1970, this administration lasting almost a century. During World War II, thousands of Fijians volunteered to aid in Allied efforts via their attachment to the New Zealand and Australian army units. The Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF) consist of land and naval units.

Fiji has one of the most developed economies in the Pacific island realm due to an abundance of forest, mineral, and fish resources. Today, the main sources of foreign exchange are its tourist industry and sugar exports. The country's currency is the Fijian dollar.

Following a coup in 2006, Ratu Epeli Nailatikau became Fiji's president after a high court ruled that the military leadership was unlawfully appointed. Fiji's local government, in the form of city and town councils, is supervised by the Ministry of Local Government and Urban Development.

Pottery art from Fijian towns shows that Fiji was settled before or around 3500 to 1000 BC, although the question of Pacific migration still lingers. It is believed that the Lapita people or the ancestors of the Polynesians settled the islands first but not much is known of what became of them after the Melanesians arrived; they may have had some influence on the new culture, and archaeological evidence shows that they would have then moved on to Samoa, Tonga and even Hawai'i.

The first settlements in Fiji were started by voyaging traders and settlers from the west about 5000 years ago. Lapita pottery shards have been found at numerous excavations around the country. Aspects of Fijian culture are similar to the Melanesian culture of the western Pacific but have a stronger connection to the older Polynesian cultures. Trade between these three nations[clarification needed] long before European contact is quite obvious with canoes made from native Fijian trees found in Tonga and Tongan words being part of the language of the Lau group of islands. Pots made in Fiji have been found in Samoa and even the Marquesas Islands.

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Driving to work at Congress in the Federated States of Micronesia

Random videos from my 2 years living in Pohnpei, Micronesia
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Top 10 Best Places To Visit in Zimbabwe - You Should Know Before Visit Zimbabwe

Top 10 Best Places You Should Check Before Visit.
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Tourist Visa Information :
Nationals of the following countries do not need visas to enter Zimbabwe.
Antigua & Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Cayman, Congo (DRC), Cyprus, Fiji, Grenada, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Leeward Island, Lesotho, Malaysia, Malawi, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Montserrat, Namibia, Nauru, Samoa (West), Singapore, Solomon Island, South Africa, St Kitts, St Lucia, St Vincent & The Grenadines, Swaziland, Tanzania, Trinidad & Tobago, Turk & Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Zambia Zambia.

Nationals of the following countries can granted visas at the port of entry upon payment of the visa fee. You can also obtain this visa in advance at an embassy. Visas cost US$30 single entry, US$45 double entry, and US$55 multi-entry.
Argentina, Austria, Australia, Belgium, Bermuda, Brazil, Brunei, Cook Islands, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Indonesia, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea (South), Kuwait, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Palau Island, Palestine (State of), Papua New Guinea, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Russia, Rwanda, Seychelles, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, USA, Vatican and Virgin Islands.

Nationals of the following countries are required to apply for and obtain visas prior to traveling.

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazzaville, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros Islands, Congo (Brazzaville), Costa Rica, Conakry, Cote d’Voire, Croatia, Cuba, Djibouti Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Byrom, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French West Indies, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Gibraltar, Guam, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Korea (DPRK), Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Macau, Madagascar, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mexico, Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norfolk Islands, Northern Mariana Island, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Principe, Qatar, Reunion, Romania, Samoa (America), San Marino, Sao Tome, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Syria, Tajikistan, Taiwan, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen Republic, Yugoslavia
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TOP 10 Places to Visit in Vanuatu

TOP 10 Places to Visit in Vanuatu. Watch this video and share it with your friend if you like this video please Subscribe My Channel For more video.
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10. Aore Island
Aore Island is an island in Sanma Province, Vanuatu. It is located opposite Luganville on Espiritu Santo and has an area of 58 km².

09. Malakula Island
Malakula Island, also spelled Malekula, is the second-largest island in the nation of Vanuatu, in the Pacific Ocean region of Melanesia.

08. Aneityum
Aneityum is the southernmost island of Vanuatu, in the province of Tafea.

07. Pentecost Island
Pentecost Island is one of the 83 islands that make up the South Pacific nation of Vanuatu. It lies 190 kilometres due north of capital Port Vila. Pentecost Island is known as Pentecôte in French and Pentikos in Bislama.

06. Ambrym
Ambrym is a volcanic island in Malampa Province in the archipelago of Vanuatu. Volcanic activity on the island includes lava lakes in two craters near the summit.

05. Luganville
Luganville is the second largest city in Vanuatu. Its population is 16,312. The city is called Santo by people from Vanuatu's northern islands, who use Luganville as their big city.

04. Espiritu Santo
Espiritu Santo is the largest island in Vanuatu, an archipelago country in the South Pacific. It’s known for its beaches, such as Champagne Beach and Lonnoc Beach, with coral reefs and clear, sheltered waters. The town of Luganville has WWII relics like Quonset huts at Main Wharf. Nearby, popular dive sites include the sunken SS President Coolidge cruise liner and Million Dollar Point’s submerged U.S. war machinery.

03. Tanna
Tanna is an island in Vanuatu, an archipelago country in the South Pacific. On the southeast coastIt’s known for Mount Yasur, an active volcano with frequent explosions from its vents. To the east, Port Resolution is a natural harbor with nearby hot springs, a freshwater lake and a beach. The villages of Sulphur Bay and Imanaka are known for their devotion to the John Frum religious movement.

02. Efate
Efate is an island in the Pacific Ocean which is part of the Shefa Province in Vanuatu. It is also known as Île Vate.

01. Port Vila
Port Vila is the harborside capital and main hub of Vanuatu, on Efate island. Its small downtown is home to colorful market stalls selling produce and local handicrafts. The National Museum of Vanuatu, inside the Vanuatu Cultural Centre, displays artifacts such as slit-gong drums and outrigger canoes. The town is a base for diving and trips to Mele Cascades, a multi-tiered waterfall with rock pools in a rainforest.

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Top 10 Largest Cities or Towns of Northern Mariana Islands

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1) Saipan
2) San Jose Village
3) Carolinas Heights
4) Pagan Village
5) Agrihan Village
6) Alamagan
7) Rota
8) Tinian
9) Capital Hill
10) Dandan

The Northern Mariana Islands, officially the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI; Chamorro: Sankattan Siha Na Islas Mariånas), is one of the five inhabited U.S. island territories (the other four are Guam, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands and American Samoa). It is one of two territories with Commonwealth status; the other is Puerto Rico).[3] It consists of fifteen islands in the western Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to the Philippines. The United States Census Bureau reports the total land area of all islands as 183.5 square miles (475.26 km2).[4] As of the 2010 census, the Northern Mariana Islands had a population of 53,883,[5] of whom over 90% live on the island of Saipan. Of the 14 other islands, only two -- Tinian and Rota -- are permanently inhabited.

The Commonwealth's center of government is in the village of Capitol Hill on Saipan. As the island is governed as a single municipality, most publications name Saipan as the Commonwealth's capital.

The first people of the Northern Mariana Islands navigated to the islands at some period between 4000 BC to 2000 BC from Southeast Asia. They became known as the Chamorros, and spoke an Austronesian language called Chamorro. The ancient Chamorros left a number of megalithic ruins, including Latte stone. The Refaluwasch, or Carolinian, people came to the Marianas in the 1800s from the Caroline Islands.

The first European explorer of the area was Ferdinand Magellan in 1521. He landed on nearby Guam and claimed the islands for Spain. The Spanish ships were met offshore by the native Chamorros, who delivered refreshments and then helped themselves to a small boat belonging to Magellan's fleet. This led to a cultural clash: in Chamorro tradition there was little private property and taking something one needed, such as a boat for fishing, was not considered stealing. The Spanish did not understand this custom. The Spanish fought the Chamorros until the boat was recovered. Three days after he had been welcomed on his arrival, Magellan fled the archipelago under attack.

In 1565, Miguel López de Legazpi arrived in Guam and took possession of the islands in the name of the Spanish Crown.

Guam was an important stopover for the Manila Galleons, a convoy of ships carrying passengers and cargo such as silver, plants and animals from Acapulco (Mexico) to Manila. On the return trip from the Philippines to Mexico, the galleons did not call at Guam as the eastern winds were farther north, near the coast of Japan.

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Nahlap Island, Pohnpei - Federated States of Micronesia | Vlog Day 9

Where to go on Day 9 of our Pohnpei, Micronesia vlog? Well, someone within the Travel Inspired community suggested we try Nahlap Island, so we went. And unbelievably we had this tropical island all to ourselves - with the exception of our guide, a cat and a dog! The island was beautiful and the snorkelling was spot on!

Bought to you by Adam Constanza - Freelance content creator and travel writer from Wellington, New Zealand.

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Wandering Kolonia in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia | Vlog Day 10 & 11

How best to spend our final 2 days in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia?

Well we... got a bit stuck in a car on the way to Lududuhniap Falls... checked out a softball field with some serious history... ate even more doughnuts... generally wandered around Kolonia... and to cap it all off, hung out with our new friend Lee, who helped us solve the mystery of the missing WWII tanks.

Epic two week trip to Pohnpei done.

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10 Best Places To Go Scuba Diving

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1. Punta Gorda, Costa Rica
2. Beqa Lagoon, Fiji
3. Papua New Guinea
4. Palau, Micronesia
5. Cayman Islands, British Overseas Territory
6. Ras Mohammed, The Red Sea, Egypt
7. Galapagos Islands, Ecuador
8. Ambergris Caye, Belize
9. The Yongala, Australia
10. Cozumel, Mexico

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Scuba diving is a form of underwater diving in which a diver uses a self contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) to breathe underwater.

Unlike other modes of diving, which rely either on breath-hold or on air pumped from the surface, scuba divers carry their own source of breathing gas, (usually compressed air), allowing them greater freedom of movement than with an air line or diver's umbilical and longer underwater endurance than breath-hold. Scuba equipment may be open circuit, in which exhaled gas is expelled to the surroundings, or a closed or semi-closed circuit rebreather, in which the breathing gas is scrubbed to remove carbon dioxide, and the oxygen used is replenished from a supply of feed gas before being re-breathed.

A scuba diver usually moves around underwater by using fins attached to the feet, but external propulsion can be provided by a diver propulsion vehicle, or a sled pulled from the surface.

The closed-circuit rebreathers were first developed for military use, due to their stealth advantages. The first commercially successful closed-circuit scuba was designed and built by English diving engineer, Henry Fleuss in 1878, while working for Siebe Gorman in London. His self contained breathing apparatus consisted of a rubber mask connected to a breathing bag, with (estimated) 50-60% O2 supplied from a copper tank and CO2 scrubbed by rope yarn soaked in a solution of caustic potash; the system giving a duration of about three hours.

Sir Robert Davis, head of Siebe Gorman, perfected the oxygen rebreather in 1910 with his invention of the Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus, the first practical rebreather to be made in quantity.

Rebreathers have been increasingly used by civilians for recreation, especially since the end of Cold War. This reduced the perceived risk of attack by Communist Bloc forces, including by their combat divers. After that, the world's armed forces had less reason to requisition civilian rebreather patents, and automatic and semi-automatic recreational diving rebreathers started to appear.

The first commercially successful scuba sets were the Aqualung twin hose open-circuit units developed by Emile Gagnan and Jacques-Yves Cousteau, in which compressed air carried in back mounted cylinders is inhaled through a demand regulator and then exhaled into the water adjacent to the tank.

The single hose two stage scuba regulators trace their origins to Australia, where Ted Eldred developed the first example of this type of regulator, known as Porpoise scuba gear. This was developed, because patents protected the Aqualung's twin hose design. The single hose regulator separates the cylinder from the demand valve, giving the diver air at the pressure at their mouth, not that at the top of the cylinder.

By the early twentieth century, two basic templates for scuba, (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus), had emerged; open-circuit scuba where the diver's exhaust is vented directly into the water, and closed-circuit scuba where the diver's unused oxygen is filtered from the carbon dioxide and recirculated.

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