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10 Best Places to Visit in Central African Republic

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travel to : Central African Republic !!!

Best places to visit in Central African Republic !!! (CAR)

Best Places To Visit - CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC | Travel & Tourism

Here are the Top 10 places you must visit in Central African Republic.

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Best Tourist Destinations- Central African Republic Tourist Attractions

Best Tourist Destinations- Central African Republic Tourist Attractions

Top 10 Largest Cities or Towns of Central African Republic

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1. Bangui
2. Bimbo
3. Berbérati
4. Carnot
5. Bambari
6. Bouar
7. Bossangoa
8. Bria
9. Bangassou
10. Nola

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Music : Alot For a Light,Jingle Punks; YouTube Audio Library

The Central African Republic is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Chad to the north, Sudan to the northeast, South Sudan to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo to the south and Cameroon to the west. The CAR covers a land area of about 620,000 square kilometres (240,000 sq mi) and had an estimated population of around 4.7 million as of 2014.

Most of the CAR consists of Sudano-Guinean savannas, but the country also includes a Sahelo-Sudanian zone in the north and an equatorial forest zone in the south. Two thirds of the country is within the Ubangi River basin (which flows into the Congo), while the remaining third lies in the basin of the Chari, which flows into Lake Chad.

What is today the Central African Republic has been inhabited for millennia; however, the country's current borders were established by France, which ruled the country as a colony starting in the late 19th century. After gaining independence from France in 1960, the Central African Republic was ruled by a series of autocratic leaders; by the 1990s, calls for democracy led to the first multi-party democratic elections in 1993. Ange-Félix Patassé became president, but was later removed by General François Bozizé in the 2003 coup. The Central African Republic Bush War began in 2004 and, despite a peace treaty in 2007 and another in 2011, fighting broke out between government, Muslim, and Christian factions in December 2012, leading to ethnic and religious cleansing and massive population displacement in 2013 and 2014.

Despite its significant mineral deposits and other resources, such as uranium reserves, crude oil, gold, diamonds, lumber, and hydropower, as well as significant quantities of arable land, the Central African Republic is among the ten poorest countries in the world. As of 2013, according to the Human Development Index (HDI), the country had a low level of human development, ranking at 185th out of 187 countries.

Approximately 10,000 years ago, desertification forced hunter-gatherer societies south into the Sahel regions of northern Central Africa, where some groups settled and began farming as part of the Neolithic Revolution. Initial farming of white yam progressed into millet and sorghum, and before 3000 BC the domestication of African oil palm improved the groups' nutrition and allowed for expansion of the local populations. Bananas arrived in the region and added an important source of carbohydrates to the diet; they were also used in the production of alcoholic beverages. This Agricultural Revolution, combined with a Fish-stew Revolution, in which fishing began to take place, and the use of boats, allowed for the transportation of goods. Products were often moved in ceramic pots, which are the first known examples of artistic expression from the region's inhabitants.

The Bouar Megaliths in the western region of the country indicate an advanced level of habitation dating back to the very late Neolithic Era (c. 3500-2700 BC). Ironworking arrived in the region around 1000 BC from both Bantu cultures in what is today Nigeria and from the Nile city of Meroë, the capital of the Kingdom of Kush.

During the Bantu Migrations from about 1000 BC to AD 1000, Ubangian-speaking people spread eastward from Cameroon to Sudan, Bantu-speaking people settled in the southwestern regions of the CAR, and Central Sudanic-speaking people settled along the Ubangi River in what is today Central and East CAR.

Production of copper, salt, dried fish, and textiles dominated the economic trade in the Central African region.

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Tourism central african republic

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Bangui
Bagui is the capital & largest city of the Central African Republic . It is situated on the northern bank of the Ubangi River. It is a very important trade centre. The nightlife & markets here are worth visiting. The presidential palace is a very attractive here. A so called big mosque is a popular place to visit & also a number of museums that document both the colonization of the country as well as the culture of its indigenous people.
Boali waterfalls
It is situated in the town of Boali , a little upstream the main town.It is 164 ft tall & best experienced during the wetter conditions of the weather. Its best to visit this place during the rainy season. The lake is abundant in crocodiles.
Dzanga-sangha National Park
This park is situated in southwest region of the country near the borders with Cameroon & the Republic of Congo. It is one of the most important parks in the country also known as the second largest rainforest in the world. It is distinctive for its thick lowland rainforest & strategic location near the Sangha River. The reserve is home to large species of mammals such as forest elephants, the bongo, chimpanzee, western lowland gorillas, sitatungas, water buffaloes etc.
Manovo-gounda st Floris National Park
This park is located in the northeastern region near the border with Chad. The park is divided into three types of landscape, the flood plain around the Bahr Aouk & Bahr Kameur rivers, the mountainous south & the lowland plains in between. Visitors can see there black rhinoceros, leopards, cheetahs, elephants, lions, giraffes, hippos& buffaloes as well as 320 different bird species.
Zinga
Zinga is a small town lying on the banks of the Oubangui river, which flows through the southern part of the country. It is around 100 km south of Bangui city. Though it is a small town but it is valuable place to visit for tourist. The wooden houses here are great examples of traditional Congo houses. The people of the town are friendly & welcoming to tourists.

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Bambari in Central African Republic, travel

Bambari in Central African Republic, travel

Congo Tourist Attractions: 14 Top Places to Visit

Planning to visit Congo? Check out our Congo Travel Guide video and see top most Tourist Attractions in Congo.

Top Places to visit in Congo:
Congo River, Virunga National Park, Mount Nyiragongo, Kahuzi-Biéga National Park, Lola ya Bonobo, Garamba National Park, Okapi Wildlife Reserve, Salonga National Park, Boyoma Falls, Livingstone Falls, Pool Malebo, Maiko National Park, Idjwi, Petites Chutes de la Lukaya

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Top 10 Poorest Countries in The World 2018 By GDP Per Capita

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Top 10 Poorest Countries in The World 2018
The richest countries have one thing in common, a proper and well established political environment supported by clear legislations, a corrupt-free government, and a strong judicial system. While these factors are only a drop in the ocean regarding what makes a country economically successful, the poorest countries in the world get these factors all wrong.
While the availability of natural resources is the foundation of an economically robust country, utilising the resources well is a whole other aspect. This is not civic education 101, so we will get straight to the point and list the countries yet to realise self-actualisation. Here are the top 10 poorest countries in the world as of 2018.
10. Madagascar – $1477
9. Guinea – $1388
8. Eritrea – $1210
7. Mozambique – $1208
6. Niger – $1069
5. Burundi – $951
4. Liberia – $934
3. Malawi – $819
2. The Democratic Republic of Congo – $753
1. Central African Republic – $636
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3 Ways I'm Preparing for Central/West AFRICA

TOMORROW, I'm leaving for a massive trip around Central and West Africa to 9 countries -- Namibia, Angola, São Tomé and Príncipe, Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Gabon, Chad, Mali & Mauritania.

This trip to Africa has been VERY challenging to plan, tedious to get visas for (5 countries), and extremely expensive to book flights & hotels ($15K+ out of pocket) -- but it's going to be a trip of a lifetime and I CAN'T WAIT to show you places that you've probably never heard of before.

Safety is my biggest concern on this trip, as most of these countries aren't built for tourism and I am going in with all of my camera gear, etc -- so I decided to make this video, which explains 3 ways I am keeping myself safe!

Are you ready to see brand new content from Central/West Africa? Here we gooooooooooo!

Thanks to Booking.com for supporting this video. If you want to score the cheapest hotel deals online, use this link to book --


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10 Best Destinations to Visit in Djibouti

Though it occupies a tiny corner in Northern Africa, Djibouti has copious amounts of beauty and sites that you really can’t believe unless you’ve seen them for yourself. Few places have such a variety of landscapes – like volcanoes, sinking plains, limestone chimneys with steam coming from the top, salt lakes, grand canyons, and gorgeous plateaus.
For those that love outdoor adventure, you’ll have plenty to keep you busy here. Enjoy snorkelling with the sharks, diving, kite surfing, and hiking. The country isn’t overly developed outside of the capital so spending time here makes for the perfect eco-travel experience as you get a peek of ancient nomadic life.

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3 BEST Places To VISIT in Central African Republic__ PlasFun

Click on the links to visit following countries around the world:

#AFRICA

01. Egypt:
02. South Africa:
03. Zimbabwe:
04. Ethiopia:
05. Kenya:
06. Morocco:
07. Nigeria:
08. Tanzania:
09. Gambia:
10. Tunisia:
11. Algeria:
12. Angola:
13. Benin:
14. Botswana:
15. Burkina Faso:
16. Burundi:
17. Cabo Verde:
18. Cameroon:
19. Central African Republic:
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TOP 10 BEST Places to SEE in AFRICA 2018__ PlasFun

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05. Kenya:
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09. Gambia:
10. Tunisia:
11. Algeria:
12. Angola:
13. Benin:
14. Botswana:
15. Burkina Faso:
16. Burundi:
17. Cabo Verde:
18. Cameroon:
19. Central African Republic:
20. Chad:
21. Comoros:
22. Cote d'Ivoire:
23. Democratic Republic of the Congo:
24. Djibouti:
25. Equatorial Guinea:
26. Eritrea:
27. Gabon:
28. Ghana:
29. Guinea:
30. Guinea-Bissau:
31. Lesotho:
32. Liberia:
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34. Madagascar:
35. Malawi:
36. Mali:
37. Mauritania:
38. Mauritius:
39. Mozambique:
40. Namibia:
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42. Republic of the Congo:
43. Rwanda:
44. Sao Tome and Principe:
45. Senegal:
46. Seychelles:
47. Sierra Leone:
48. Somalia:
49. South Sudan:
50. Sudan:
51. Swaziland:
52. Togo:
53. Uganda:
54. Zambia:

Top 10 Largest Cities or Towns of South Sudan

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1. Juba
2. Malakal
3. Wau
4. Yambio
5. Yei
6. Aweil
7. Gogrial
8. Rumbek
9. Bor
10. Torit

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Music: Voyeur,Jingle Punks; YouTube Audio Library

South Sudan, officially the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in northeastern Africa that gained its independence from Sudan in 2011. Its current capital is Juba, which is also its largest city. It is planned that the capital city will be changed to the more centrally located Ramciel in the future. South Sudan is bordered by the Republic of the Sudan to the north, Ethiopia to the east, Kenya to the southeast, Uganda to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest, and the Central African Republic to the west. It includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd, formed by the White Nile and known locally as the Bahr al Jabal.

The territories of modern South Sudan and the Republic of the Sudan were occupied by Egypt under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty, and later governed as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium until Sudanese independence was achieved in 1956. Following the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon developed and ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005. Later that year, southern autonomy was restored when an Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed.

South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011, following a referendum that passed with 98.83% of the vote. It is a United Nations member state, a member state of the African Union, and a member state of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development. In July 2012, South Sudan signed the Geneva Conventions. South Sudan has suffered internal conflict since its independence.

The Nilotic people of South Sudan—the Acholi, Anyuak, Bari, Dinka, Nuer, Shilluk and others—first entered South Sudan sometime before the 10th century. During the period from the 15th to the 19th centuries, tribal migrations, largely from the area of Bahr el Ghazal, brought the Anyuak Dinka, Nuer and Shilluk to their modern locations of both Bahr El Ghazal and Upper Nile Regions, while the, Acholi and Bari settled in Equatoria.

The Bantu people of South Sudan are—the Azande, Mundu, Avukaya and Baka people Azande people, who entered South Sudan in the 16th century, established the region's largest state of Equatoria Region.

The Azande are the third-largest ethnic group in South Sudan while the Bari are fourth-largest. They are found in the Maridi, Yambio, and Tombura districts in the tropical rain-forest belt of Western Equatoria, the Adio of Azande client in Yei, Central Equatoria and Western Bahr el Ghazal. In the 18th century, the Avungara sib rose to power over the rest of Azande society and this domination continued into the 20th century. Geographical barriers prevented the spread of Islam to the southerners, thus enabling them to retain their social and cultural heritage, as well as their political and religious institutions.

Slavery had been an institution of Sudanese life throughout history. The slave trade in the south intensified in the 19th century and continued after the British had suppressed slavery in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Annual Sudanese slave raids into non-Muslim territories resulted in the capture of countless thousands of southern Sudanese, and the destruction of the region's stability and economy.

The Azande have had good relations with the neighbors, namely the Moru, Mundu, Pöjulu, Avukaya, Baka and the small groups in Bahr el Ghazal, due to the expansionist policy of their king Gbudwe, in the 18th century. In the 19th century, the Azande fought the French, the Belgians and the Mahdists to maintain their independence. Egypt, under the rule of Khedive Ismail Pasha, first attempted to control the region in the 1870s, establishing the province of Equatoria in the southern portion. Egypt's first governor was Samuel Baker, commissioned in 1869, followed by Charles George Gordon in 1874 and by Emin Pasha in 1878.

The Mahdist Revolt of the 1880s destabilized the nascent province, and Equatoria ceased to exist as an Egyptian outpost in 1889. Important settlements in Equatoria included Lado, Gondokoro, Dufile and Wadelai. European colonial maneuverings in the region came to a head in 1898, when the Fashoda Incident occurred at present-day Kodok; Britain and France almost went to war over the region. In 1947, British hopes to join South Sudan with Uganda as well as, living Western Equatoria as part of Belgium French Congo The Democratic Republic of Congo were dashed by the Rajaf Conference to unify North and South Sudan.

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Top 10 Largest Cities or Towns of Chad

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1. N'Djamena
2. Moundou
3. Sarh
4. Abeche
5. Kelo
6. Koumra
7. Pala
8. Am Timan
9. Mongo
10. Bongor

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Chad, officially the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest and Niger to the west. It is the fifth largest country in Africa in terms of area.

Chad is divided into multiple regions: a desert zone in the north, an arid Sahelian belt in the centre and a more fertile Sudanese savanna zone in the south. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the largest wetland in Chad and the second-largest in Africa. N'Djamena, the capital, is the largest city. Chad is home to over 200 different ethnic and linguistic groups. Arabic and French are the official languages. Islam and Christianity are the most widely practiced religions.

Beginning in the 7th millennium BC, human populations moved into the Chadian basin in great numbers. By the end of the 1st millennium BC, a series of states and empires rose and fell in Chad's Sahelian strip, each focused on controlling the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region. France conquered the territory by 1920 and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. In 1960, Chad obtained independence under the leadership of François Tombalbaye. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminated in the eruption of a long-lasting civil war in 1965. In 1979, the rebels conquered the capital and put an end to the south's hegemony. However, the rebel commanders fought amongst themselves until Hissène Habré defeated his rivals. He was overthrown in 1990 by his general Idriss Déby. Since 2003, the Darfur crisis in Sudan has spilt over the border and destabilised the nation, with hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees living in and around camps in eastern Chad.

While many political parties are active, power lies firmly in the hands of President Déby and his political party, the Patriotic Salvation Movement. Chad remains plagued by political violence and recurrent attempted coups d'état. Chad is one of the poorest and most corrupt countries in the world; most inhabitants live in poverty as subsistence herders and farmers. Since 2003, crude oil has become the country's primary source of export earnings, superseding the traditional cotton industry.

In the 7th millennium BC, ecological conditions in the northern half of Chadian territory favored human settlement, and the region experienced a strong population increase. Some of the most important African archaeological sites are found in Chad, mainly in the Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Region; some date to earlier than 2000 BC.

For more than 2,000 years, the Chadian Basin has been inhabited by agricultural and sedentary people. The region became a crossroads of civilisations. The earliest of these were the legendary Sao, known from artifacts and oral histories. The Sao fell to the Kanem Empire, the first and longest-lasting of the empires that developed in Chad's Sahelian strip by the end of the 1st millennium AD. The power of Kanem and its successors was based on control of the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region. These states, at least tacitly Muslim, never extended their control to the southern grasslands except to raid for slaves. In Kanem, about a third of the population were slaves.

French colonial expansion led to the creation of the Territoire Militaire des Pays et Protectorats du Tchad in 1900. By 1920, France had secured full control of the colony and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. French rule in Chad was characterised by an absence of policies to unify the territory and sluggish modernisation compared to other French colonies.

The French primarily viewed the colony as an unimportant source of untrained labour and raw cotton; France introduced large-scale cotton production in 1929. The colonial administration in Chad was critically understaffed and had to rely on the dregs of the French civil service. Only the Sara of the south was governed effectively; French presence in the Islamic north and east was nominal. The educational system suffered from this neglect.

After World War II, France granted Chad the status of overseas territory and its inhabitants the right to elect representatives to the French National Assembly and a Chadian assembly. The largest political party was the Chadian Progressive Party (PPT), based in the southern half of the colony. Chad was granted independence on 11 August 1960 with the PPT's leader, a Sara people François Tombalbaye, as its first president.

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Top 10 Largest Cities or Towns of Republic of the Congo

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1. Brazzaville
2. Pointe-Noire
3. Dolisie
4. Nkayi
5. Kindamba
6. Impfondo
7. Ouésso
8. Madingou
9. Owando
10. Sibiti

Music : Alright,Silent Partner; YouTube Audio Library

The Republic of the Congo (French: République du Congo), also known as Congo Republic or Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa. It is bordered by Gabon, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Angolan exclave of Cabinda.

The region was dominated by Bantu-speaking tribes, who built trade links leading into the Congo River basin. Congo-Brazzaville was formerly part of the French colony of Equatorial Africa. Upon independence in 1960, the former colony of French Congo became the Republic of the Congo. The People's Republic of the Congo was a Marxist–Leninist single-party state from 1970 to 1991. Multi-party elections have been held since 1992, although a democratically elected government was ousted in the 1997 Republic of the Congo Civil War.

Bantu-speaking peoples who founded tribes during the Bantu expansions largely displaced and absorbed the earliest inhabitants of the region, the Pygmy people, about 1500 BC. The Bakongo, a Bantu ethnicity that also occupied parts of present-day Angola, Gabon and Democratic Republic of the Congo, formed the basis for ethnic affinities and rivalries among those countries. Several Bantu kingdoms—notably those of the Kongo, the Loango, and the Teke—built trade links leading into the Congo River basin.

The Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão reached the mouth of the Congo in 1484. Commercial relationships quickly grew up between the inland Bantu kingdoms and European merchants who traded various commodities, manufactured goods, and slaves captured from the hinterlands. For centuries the Congo river delta served as a major commercial hub for transatlantic trade. However, direct European colonization of the area began in the late 19th century and eroded the power of the Bantu societies in the region.

The area north of the Congo River came under French sovereignty in 1880 as a result of Pierre de Brazza's treaty with Makoko of the Bateke. This Congo Colony became known first as French Congo, then as Middle Congo in 1903. In 1908, France organized French Equatorial Africa (AEF), comprising Middle Congo, Gabon, Chad, and Oubangui-Chari (the modern Central African Republic). The French designated Brazzaville as the federal capital. Economic development during the first 50 years of colonial rule in Congo centered on natural-resource extraction. The methods were often brutal: establishment of the Congo–Ocean Railroad following World War I has been estimated to have cost at least 14,000 lives.

During the Nazi occupation of France during World War II, Brazzaville functioned as the symbolic capital of Free France between 1940 and 1943. The Brazzaville Conference of 1944 heralded a period of major reform in French colonial policy. Congo benefited from the postwar expansion of colonial administrative and infrastructure spending as a result of its central geographic location within AEF and the federal capital at Brazzaville. It also received a local legislature after the adoption of the 1946 constitution that established the Fourth Republic.

Following the revision of the French constitution that established the Fifth Republic in 1958, the AEF dissolved into its constituent parts, each of which became an autonomous colony within the French Community. During these reforms, Middle Congo became known as the Republic of the Congo in 1958[9] and published its first constitution in 1959. Antagonism between the pro-Opangault Mbochis and the pro-Youlou Balalis resulted in a series of riots in Brazzaville in February 1959, which the French Army subdued.

The Republic of the Congo received full independence from France on August 15, 1960. Fulbert Youlou ruled as the country's first president until labour elements and rival political parties instigated a three-day uprising that ousted him. The Congolese military took charge of the country briefly and installed a civilian provisional government headed by Alphonse Massamba-Débat.

Under the 1963 constitution, Massamba-Débat was elected President for a five-year term. During Massamba-Débat's term in office the regime adopted scientific socialism as the country's constitutional ideology. In 1965, Congo established relations with the Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, North Korea and North Vietnam. Massamba-Débat was unable to reconcile various institutional and ideological factions and his regime ended abruptly with a bloodless coup d'état in August 1968.

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Cleanest City in Africa? KIGALI, RWANDA

You will not believe how clean KIGALI, RWANDA is until you watch this video. I am beyond shocked -- as I had no idea it was this clean and safe until coming here!!

For a brief history lesson - Back in 1994, Rwanda suffered one of the bloodiest genocides in modern history. Within 100 days (April 7 - mid July), roughly 20% of the population, or 1 million people, were slaughtered due to tribal conflicts of land ownership. It was devastating, and feels realistic to me when I learn about it because it happened within my lifetime.

Fast forward 24 years, and the capital of Kigali has done a remarkable job reconstructing and rebuilding itself to be a leading African city in terms of modernity, safety, cleanliness and tech (the wifi here is the strongest I've seen on the continent!)

The streets are so clean here in Rwanda that I could eat off them... I'm being serious! I am having flashbacks to walking around Singapore - especially when I went to a swanky rooftop infinity pool over looking the city (reminds me exactly of the Marina Bay Sands).

Have you ever been to Kigali? Or Rwanda? Do you agree with me?

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3 BEST Places To VISIT in Lesotho__ PlasFun

Click on the links to visit following countries around the world:

#AFRICA

01. Egypt:
02. South Africa:
03. Zimbabwe:
04. Ethiopia:
05. Kenya:
06. Morocco:
07. Nigeria:
08. Tanzania:
09. Gambia:
10. Tunisia:
11. Algeria:
12. Angola:
13. Benin:
14. Botswana:
15. Burkina Faso:
16. Burundi:
17. Cabo Verde:
18. Cameroon:
19. Central African Republic:
20. Chad:
21. Comoros:
22. Cote d'Ivoire:
23. Democratic Republic of the Congo:
24. Djibouti:
25. Equatorial Guinea:
26. Eritrea:
27. Gabon:
28. Ghana:
29. Guinea:
30. Guinea-Bissau:
31. Lesotho:

3 BEST Places To VISIT in Cote d'Ivoire__ PlasFun

Click on the links to visit following countries around the world:

#AFRICA

01. Egypt:
02. South Africa:
03. Zimbabwe:
04. Ethiopia:
05. Kenya:
06. Morocco:
07. Nigeria:
08. Tanzania:
09. Gambia:
10. Tunisia:
11. Algeria:
12. Angola:
13. Benin:
14. Botswana:
15. Burkina Faso:
16. Burundi:
17. Cabo Verde:
18. Cameroon:
19. Central African Republic:
20. Chad:
21. Comoros:
22. Cote d'Ivoire:

Top 10 Largest Cities or Towns of Gabon

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1. Libreville
2. Port-Gentil
3. Franceville
4. Oyem
5. Moanda
6. Mouila
7. Lambaréné
8. Tchibanga
9. Koulamoutou
10. Makokou

Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (French: République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa. Located on the equator, Gabon is bordered by Equatorial Guinea to the northwest, Cameroon to the north, the Republic of the Congo on the east and south, and the Gulf of Guinea to the west. It has an area of nearly 270,000 square kilometres (100,000 sq mi) and its population is estimated at 1.5 million people. Its capital and largest city is Libreville.

Since its independence from France on August 17, 1960, Gabon has had three presidents. In the early 1990s, Gabon introduced a multi-party system and a new democratic constitution that allowed for a more transparent electoral process and reformed many governmental institutions. Gabon was also a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council for the 2010–2011 term.

Low population density, abundant petroleum, and foreign private investment[ambiguous] have helped make Gabon one of the most prosperous countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, with the 2nd highest HDI and the third highest GDP per capita (PPP) (after Equatorial Guinea and Botswana) in the region.

The earliest inhabitants of the area were Pygmy peoples. They were largely replaced and absorbed by Bantu tribes as they migrated.

In the 15th century, the first Europeans arrived. The nation's present name originates from Gabão, Portuguese for cloak, which is roughly the shape of the estuary of the Komo River by Libreville. By the 18th century, a Myeni speaking kingdom known as Orungu formed in Gabon. French explorer Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza led his first mission to the Gabon-Congo area in 1875. He founded the town of Franceville, and was later colonial governor. Several Bantu groups lived in the area that is now Gabon when France officially occupied it in 1885.

In 1910, Gabon became one of the four territories of French Equatorial Africa, a federation that survived until 1959. These territories became independent on August 17, 1960. The first president of Gabon, elected in 1961, was Léon M'ba, with Omar Bongo Ondimba as his vice president.

After M'ba's accession to power, the press was suppressed, political demonstrations banned, freedom of expression curtailed, other political parties gradually excluded from power and the Constitution changed along French lines to vest power in the Presidency, a post that M'ba assumed himself. However, when M'ba dissolved the National Assembly in January 1964 to institute one-party rule, an army coup sought to oust him from power and restore parliamentary democracy. French paratroopers flew in within 24 hours to restore M'ba to power.

After a few days of fighting, the coup was over and the opposition imprisoned, despite widespread protests and riots. French soldiers still remain in the Camp de Gaulle on the outskirts of Gabon's capital to this day. When M'Ba died in 1967, Bongo replaced him as president.

In March 1968, Bongo declared Gabon a one-party state by dissolving the BDG and establishing a new party — the Parti Democratique Gabonais (PDG). He invited all Gabonese, regardless of previous political affiliation, to participate. Bongo sought to forge a single national movement in support of the government's development policies, using the PDG as a tool to submerge the regional and tribal rivalries that had divided Gabonese politics in the past. Bongo was elected President in February 1975; in April 1975, the position of vice president was abolished and replaced by the position of prime minister, who had no right to automatic succession. Bongo was re-elected President in both December 1979 and November 1986 to 7-year terms.

Economic discontent and a desire for political liberalization provoked violent demonstrations and strikes by students and workers in early 1990. In response to grievances by workers, Bongo negotiated with them on a sector-by-sector basis, making significant wage concessions. In addition, he promised to open up the PDG and to organize a national political conference in March–April 1990 to discuss Gabon's future political system. The PDG and 74 political organizations attended the conference. Participants essentially divided into two loose coalitions, the ruling PDG and its allies, and the United Front of Opposition Associations and Parties, consisting of the breakaway Morena Fundamental and the Gabonese Progress Party.

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